interviewer ： Let's talk today CMS Garbage collector ？
candidates ： Yeah …
candidates ： If you use Seria and Parallel A series of garbage collectors ： During garbage collection , All user threads stop completely , Until the garbage collection is over ！
candidates ： use CMS Compare the garbage collector above (Seria and Parallel and parNew)： Its biggest difference is 「 Concurrent 」： stay GC When threads work , User threads 「 It won't stop completely 」, User thread in 「 In some scenes 」 And GC Threads execute concurrently .
candidates ： however , To understand is , No matter what the garbage collector is ,Stop The World It must be inevitable ！
candidates ：CMS It's just 「 part 」 Of GC You can make GC Threads execute concurrently with user threads
candidates ：CMS Our design goal is to avoid 「 Old age GC」 appear 「 Long-term 」 Carlton of （Stop The World）
interviewer ： Then you know CMS Your workflow ？
candidates ： Only know a little , No more .
candidates ：CMS It can be simply divided into 5 A step ： Initial marker 、 Concurrent Tags 、 Concurrent pre cleanup 、 Retag and concurrent cleanup
candidates ： It is not difficult to see from the steps ,CMS Mainly achieved 「 Mark clear 」 Garbage collection algorithm
interviewer ： Um. … Yes
candidates ： I'm from 「 Initial marker 」 Let's get started
candidates ：「 Initial marker 」 Will mark GCRoots「 Directly related 」 And 「 The younger generation 」 Point to 「 Old age 」 The object of
candidates ：「 Initial marker 」 This process will happen Stop The World Of . But the speed of this stage is very fast , Because no 「 Back down 」（ Mark only one layer ）
candidates ： stay 「 Initial marker 」 After that , It's in 「 Concurrent Tags 」 Stage
candidates ：「 Concurrent Tags 」 This process does not stop the user thread （ Not going to happen Stop The World）. This stage is mainly from GC Roots Down 「 trace 」, Mark all reachable objects .
candidates ：「 Concurrent Tags 」 stay GC From the point of view , It's more time consuming （ Need to trace ）
candidates ：「 Concurrent Tags 」 After this stage is finished , That's it 「 Concurrent preprocessing 」 Stage
candidates ：「 Concurrent preprocessing 」 What I want to do at this stage ： Hope to reduce the next stage 「 Re label 」 The time it takes
candidates ： Because the next stage 「 Re label 」 Is the need to Stop The World Of
interviewer ： Um. …
candidates ：「 Concurrent Tags 」 At this stage, because the user thread is not suspended , So the object is likely to change
candidates ： There may be some objects , From the new generation to the old age . There may be some objects , Directly allocated to the old age （ Big object ）. Maybe the object references of the old or new generation have changed …
interviewer ： So this question , How to solve it ？
candidates ： For the elderly , In fact, you can still use classes card table The storage （ Mark the card page corresponding to the change of the old age object as dirty）
candidates ： therefore 「 Concurrent preprocessing 」 This phase will be scanned, possibly due to 「 Concurrent Tags 」 The objects that cause changes in the elderly generation , It will be scanned again and marked as dirty Card page
interviewer ： Um. …
candidates ： For the new generation of objects , We still have to traverse the Cenozoic to see where 「 Concurrent Tags 」 Is there any object in the process that references the old age ..
candidates ： however JVM It provides us with a lot of 「 Parameters 」, It is possible to trigger once in this process minor GC（ Triggered minor GC It means less traversal of the new generation of objects ）
candidates ：「 Concurrent preprocessing 」 At the end of this phase , That's it 「 Re label 」 Stage
candidates ：「 Re label 」 Stage meeting Stop The World, The pause time of this process actually depends largely on the above 「 Concurrent preprocessing 」 Stage （ You can find , This is a catch-up process ： While marking the living object , While the user thread is executing, it generates garbage ）
candidates ： The last is 「 Concurrent elimination 」 Stage , Can't Stop The World
candidates ： While the user thread is executing , On one side GC The thread is reclaiming unreachable objects
candidates ： This process , It is still possible that user threads are constantly generating garbage , But only for the next time GC processed , The waste produced is called “ Floating garbage ”
candidates ： It will reset when it is finished CMS Algorithm related internal data , For the next time GC Prepare for the cycle
interviewer ： Um. ,CMS The recycling process , I know the
interviewer ： Listen , In fact, it is the process of garbage collection to ” To subdivide ” 了 , Then, at some stage, the user thread can not be stopped , While recycling garbage , While processing the request , To reduce each garbage collection Stop The World Time for
interviewer ： Of course! , A lot of optimization has also been done in the middle （dirty card Mark 、 May trigger... Halfway minor gc wait , In my understanding , These should all provide CMS Related parameter configuration of ）
interviewer ： however , I think many enterprises are using G1 了 , Then you think CMS What are the disadvantages ？
candidates ：1. Space needs to be reserved ：CMS The garbage collector can collect garbage at the same time , While processing user threads , It is necessary to ensure that there is sufficient memory space for users in this process .
candidates ： If CMS There is not enough space reserved during operation , Will report a mistake （Concurrent Mode Failure）, This will start Serial Old The garbage collector carries out garbage collection in the old days , It will cause a long pause .
candidates ： Obviously , How much space is reserved , There must be parameter configuration
candidates ：2. Memory fragmentation problem ：CMS In essence, it realizes 「 Tag clearing algorithm 」 The collector of （ From the process, we can see ）, This would mean memory fragmentation
candidates ： Because there are too many pieces , It may also be triggered by insufficient memory space full GC,CMS It usually triggers full GC This process defragments
candidates ： Sorting involves 「 Move 」/「 Mark 」, Then this process will Stop The World Of , If memory is large enough （ It means that there may be enough objects loaded ）, Then this process will take some time .
interviewer ： Um. …
candidates ： Use CMS The disadvantage of is like a dead circle ：
candidates ：1. Too many memory fragments , Resulting in reduced space utilization .
candidates ：2. Space itself needs to be reserved for user threads , Now fragmented memory exacerbates the problem of space , This may cause the garbage collector to be downgraded to Serial Old, Caton takes longer .
candidates ：3. To deal with memory fragmentation （ Arrangement ）, It will also get stuck
candidates ： however , Technology implementation is a kind of trade-off（ Balance ）, You can't do everything perfectly
candidates ： Understand the process , It's very interesting
interviewer ： that G1 Garbage collector, do you know
candidates ： Only know a little , No more
candidates ： however , Save it for next time , Let you digest , Otherwise I'm afraid you can't hold it .
This paper summarizes ：
- CMS The garbage collector is designed for ： for fear of 「 Old age GC」 appear 「 Long-term 」 Carlton of （Stop The World）
- CMS Garbage collector recycling process ： Initial marker 、 Concurrent Tags 、 Concurrent preprocessing 、 Retag and concurrent cleanup . Initial marking and re marking will Stop The World
- CMS The disadvantages of garbage collector ： Memory fragmentation will occur && Space reservation is required ： The pause time is unpredictable
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