1. Exposure ： aperture 、 shutter speed
ISO What are these , How to control exposure parameters The aperture controls the amount of light entering , The format is F 1/2.8,F 1/8 It looks like . The smaller the number is. , The greater the amount of light entering , The brighter the picture . The amount of incoming light is inversely proportional to the square of the aperture value , such as F4 The amount of incoming light is F8 Of 4 times .
Because in photography , Each additional exposure , Double the light input , So the standard aperture division is ： F1.4,F2,F2.8,F4,F5.6,F8,F11,F16 There is a gear difference between the two , On the far left is the largest aperture In addition to affecting the amount of light input , It also affects the depth of field . The larger the aperture , The shallower the depth of field , That is, the lighter the clear part of the picture , The more the background is blurred . We often see the background on the Internet empty , A clear picture of the subject , It was shot with a large aperture .
Generally speaking , Take a portrait 、 In still life, we use a large aperture , Get the effect of highlighting the subject . The scenery is taken with a smaller aperture , such as F8, So that all parts of the picture are clear . And generally, the lens achieves the best aperture at twice to three times the maximum aperture value , Sharpest , The picture is the clearest . such as 18-55/3.5-5.6 The camera is usually in F8-F11 The left and right shots are the clearest . Let me give you an example ：
Big aperture , Shallow depth of field
Small aperture , Big depth of field
The shutter controls the exposure time , The format is ：1/2000s,1/50s, 0.5s It looks like , The first exposure time is the shortest , The last one is the longest , Double the shutter time , The amount of light entering is also doubled , The standard shutter gear is ：1/4000s,1/2000s,1/1000s,1/500s,1/250s,1/120s,1/60s,1/30s,1/15s,1/8s,1/4s,0.5s,1s,2s,4s,8s,15s,30s,60s
On the far left is the smallest shutter The faster the shutter speed , The shorter the moment of capture . Then the subject will have less movement in this short period of time , At the same time, the more difficult it is to record the jitter of the person holding the camera . There are so-called safety shutters in photography , That is, generally, as long as the shutter speed is higher than this value, the picture will not be blurred .
This value is the reciprocal of the equivalent focal length , such as d5100 Focus the upper lens to 35mm, The equivalent focal length 52mm, Then the value of the safety shutter is 1/50s, Higher than this value , such as 1/30s, It's easy to paste . If the camera or lens has anti shake function , Then you can lower 2-5 Different gears . such as 55-200VR The anti shake of the lens is almost 4 files , So in 200mm Focal length , The equivalent focal length is 300mm, Not opening the anti shake safety shutter is 1/250s, This shutter speed is usually too dark indoors or at night .
But if you turn on the lens, anti shake , Can reduce 4 Stop to 1/15s, This shutter speed can meet the needs of most dark light shooting . If it's a child , Because children are always moving , So the shutter often has to be lowered to 1/1000s The following can be photographed of children who don't paste . If it's high-speed motion , Like hurdles , Or the feeling of water splashing , The shutter speed should be reduced to 1/8000s.
Sometimes a slow shutter is used , Like shooting waterfalls , Or shoot clouds , Or shoot the lights at night , In order to shoot a dream feeling , You can set the shutter to 30s Shoot around , So this 30s The motions inside are superimposed , Here's the picture
ISO It's sensitivity . The higher the sensitivity, under the same aperture and shutter settings , The brighter the picture is . however ISO The higher the , Especially beyond a certain range , The quality of imaging tends to deteriorate , There will be a lot of white noise on the picture . Most of the APS-C SLR of the picture frame ISO It's best to set it at 800 following , Better, like nex Micro orders can be set to 1600 It's all pretty good , Almost, like 600d Maybe only to 400.ISO Sub file ：100,200,400,800,1600,3200,6400,12800,25600
Increase the aperture by one gear , Raise the shutter by one gear , Follow iso The effect of raising the first gear is the same . So the same scene F2,1/60s,ISO100 The brightness is the same as F8（ Aperture reduction 4 files ）,1/30s（ Shutter speed increased 1 files ）,ISO800（ISO Improve 3 files ） The brightness of the picture should be the same . The difference is that the former has a larger aperture , So the depth of field is shallower , The background is more virtual ; The former shutter faster , So the picture is less likely to be blurred ; The former ISO A lower , So the picture is cleaner .
So how to set the exposure parameters in the actual shooting . Generally speaking , We first determine the aperture according to the required depth of field , If it's portraits and still life , Usually use the maximum aperture , such as F1.8, If it's a landscape , Just set it to a medium aperture, such as F8, Then adjust the shutter speed to the safety shutter , For example, if it is 35mm So equivalence is 50mm, So the shutter is 1/50, And then ISO Adjust to the lowest, e.g ISO100. If the picture is too bright , Then you can reduce the shutter speed to 1/120. If the picture is too dark , Then you can put ISO Raise it to ISO400 perhaps ISO800. Generally speaking , Ordinary shooting in the daytime when the sun is good , A portrait is usually taken with a large aperture （F1.8）, low ISO（ISO100）, Medium speed shutter （1/500s）, Taking scenery is a small aperture （F8）, low ISO（ISO100）, Safety shutter （1/30s）. Indoor still life or Bust shooting is a big aperture （F1.8）, low ISO（ISO100）, Safety shutter （1/30s）. The night scene is a big aperture （F1.8）, high ISO（ISO1600）, Safety shutter （1/30s）.
If you want to save time , Then you can set the mode dial to P files , Just put ISO Just turn it down . Still life portraits can be shot in aperture first mode （A files ） Turn the aperture to the maximum , Then the others are set automatically . Shutter priority mode is used for shooting motion scenes （S files ）, Set the shutter as fast as possible , Other automatic settings . This can at least be much better than automatic mode , And because the entry-level camera doesn't have enough wheels , Compared with manual mode （M files ） Just one paddle wheel , Setting parameters will be much faster
Besides , Now many cameras have HDR The function of , The principle is to make the bright parts of the picture not too bright by synthesizing the brighter and darker pictures exposed , Dark places are not too dark , This solves the problem that there are both particularly bright and dark parts in a picture, and one can't take care of the other , You can try it .
Two 、 Color article ： Skillfully use white balance and color temperature setting
There are white balance settings in the camera , Some are even colored K Value setting . The lower the color temperature value is set , The higher the actual color temperature after white balance compensation , The bluer it comes out , The colder it feels . On the contrary, it is yellow , It's warmer . Usually take snow scenes , Snow mountain , Multi use and low cost K Value setting （ Such as 2500k）. Shoot the sunset , Autumn scenery is mostly high K Value setting （ Such as 7000k）.
The entry-level camera has no color temperature K Value setting function , You can use cloudy days 、 Shadow instead of high K Value setting , Use incandescent mode to mention low K Value setting . The schematic diagram of high color temperature and low color temperature is shown in the figure below
Low color temperature
High color temperature
To get more beautiful colors , It is highly recommended that you use lightroom This software carries out post color processing . This software is better than photoshop It's a lot easier , It also provides rich color adjustment functions , There are also preset color adjustment schemes （ There are more to download on the Internet ） It can be adjusted automatically with one key , The adjusted image quality is much better than that of light and shadow magicians and Meitu XiuXiu
// 3、 ... and 、 Some shooting skills //
Find a picture with characters and scenery , Try shooting with different focal lengths and different apertures , To experience the change of perspective relationship caused by the change of focal length （ For example, it is also a full body portrait , use 200mm than 50mm Step back a lot , The perspective relationship changes ） And the depth of field caused by the change of aperture . use lightroom Try different colors and different styles .
In addition to using a large aperture standard lens （50/1.8 This kind of lens ） outside , Also try shooting with the long focus end away , The characters and background will be compressed together , There is a feeling of detachment . You can also try the telephoto end when shooting scenery . If the focal length is not enough , You can cut only a small part of the picture after shooting , It's the same as shooting with a telephoto lens .
Now the camera pixels are very high , However, it is generally hundreds of resolutions when it is transmitted to the Internet , So don't be afraid to cut . When photographing others in the street , Shooting directly at others with a camera may cause disgust , At this time, you can try to turn the flip screen up with the screen facing up , Use the flip screen to view , At this time, people will think you are looking at the photos on the camera , Don't realize you're filming him . Take humanistic documentary in this way （ There are people and environment ） Photo , You can use the wide-angle end to get a tension perspective even though it is close to the subject .
Light is important , The sunshine about two hours before dark is the most beautiful , At this time, you can find a beautiful place to take a portrait outdoors , Try more smoothing . Backlight 、 Metering effect . It's also a good time to go to the coffee shop and find a window facing west to sit down , Take some nice sugar water bust and still life with a large aperture lens by using the gentle sunshine and the interior decoration and ornaments of the cafe Don't be too busy upgrading cameras and lenses .
If you're tired of playing with your equipment , You should give priority to buying a tripod 、 Filters and flashlights . Tripod can be used for long exposure to take scenery and night scenes , Polarization filters can be used to eliminate reflection and make the water more pure , Gradient filters can be used to darken the sky , So that the blue sky and white clouds can be clear at the same time as the scenery on the ground without being too bright , An external flash can hit the side and back of a character or still life .
Camera to four or five thousand APS-C The level of the frame , Another two thousand yuan or so, with a zoom lens and a fixed focus large aperture lens , That's enough . Upgrade the camera and lens , Thousands of dollars were thrown in , Often the picture quality is only improved, which can't be seen on the Internet , The Portability has decreased a lot .