Python Is a scripting language , Interpreted and executed by interpreter . The way it's released :

  • .py file : Not so important for open source projects or source code , Provide source code directly , It needs to be installed by the user Python And install the various libraries that depend on .(Python This is what the official installation packages do )

  • .pyc file : Some companies or individuals because of confidentiality or various reasons , I don't want the source code to be seen by the operator , have access to pyc Document release ,pyc File is Python The binary code that the interpreter can recognize , So it's also cross platform after it's released , The user is required to install the corresponding version of Python And dependency Libraries .

  • Executable file : For non code farmers or some small white users , You make him pretend to be Python At the same time, we have to make a lot of dependency libraries , It was a disaster . For such users , The easiest way is to provide an executable file , Just tell me the usage Ta that will do . The trouble is that different executable files need to be packaged for different platforms (Windows,Linux,Mac,...).

This article mainly introduces the last way ,.py and .pyc It's all pretty simple ,Python It can be done by itself . take Python There are many ways to package scripts into executable files , This article focuses on PyInstaller, Others are for comparison and reference only .

Freezing Your Code

A comparison of the various packaging tools is as follows ( From the article Freezing Your Code):

Solution Windows Linux OS X Python 3 License One-file mode Zipfile import Eggs pkg_resources support
bbFreeze yes yes yes no MIT no yes yes yes
py2exe yes no no yes MIT yes yes no no
pyInstaller yes yes yes no GPL yes no yes no
cx_Freeze yes yes yes yes PSF no yes yes no
py2app no no yes yes MIT no yes yes yes

PS. among pyInstaller and cx_Freeze It's all good ,stackoverflow It's also suggested on the Internet cx_Freeze, It's more convenient .pkg_resources New version of the pyInstaller It seems to be supportive .

install PyInstaller

For those networks, it's more stable , Able to use smoothly pip User with source address , Just follow the command below :

pip install pyinstaller

We usually download the source code package , Then go to the package directory , Execute the following command ( Need to install setuptools):

python setup.py install

After the installation , Check for successful installation :

pyinstaller --version

After successful installation , You can use the following command :

  • pyinstaller : The main command that packages the executable , Detailed usage is described below .
  • pyi-archive_viewer : View the list of files in the executable package .
  • pyi-bindepend : View the dynamic library on which the executable depends (.so or .dll file )
  • pyi-... : wait .

Use PyInstaller

pyinstaller The grammar of :

pyinstaller [options] script [script ...] | specfile

The simplest use , In the and myscript.py Execute the command in the same directory :

pyinstaller mycript.py

Then you will see two new directories added build and dist,dist The following files are executable files that can be distributed , For the above commands you will find dist There are a bunch of files under the directory , Various dynamic library files and myscrip Executable file . Sometimes it feels like a hassle , Need to pack dist Everything below will be published , In case you lose a dynamic library, it won't work , Fortunately pyInstaller Support single file mode , Just execute :

pyinstaller -F mycript.py

You'll find that dist There is only one executable file below , This single file is ready to be published , It can run under a similar system to the operating system you are using .

Of course ,pyinstaller There are also various options , There are general options , Such as -d The options are for debug, understand pyInstaller The process of execution ; There are also options for different platforms , The specific usage can be accessed PyInstaller official WIKI.

In execution pyInstaller When ordered , Will be in the same directory as the script , Generate a .spec file , The file will tell pyinstaller How to handle all your scripts , Also includes command options . Normally we don't bother with this file , If you need to package data files , Or add a little bit to the packed binary Python Runtime options ... Some advanced packaging options , You need to edit it manually .spec file . have access to :

pyi-makespec options script [script ...]

Create a .spec file , For manual editing .spec file , We can use any of the following commands :

pyinstaller specfile
pyi-build specfile

PyInstaller Brief introduction of the principle of

PyInstaller It's just a way of python The parser and your own scripts are packaged into an executable file , And compiling it into actual machine code , So don't count on packaging as an executable to improve performance , On the contrary, it may reduce operating efficiency , The advantage is that there is no installation on the runner's machine python And libraries that your script depends on . stay Linux Under the operating system , It mainly USES binutil In the kit ldd and objdump command .

PyInstaller Enter the script you specified , Start by analyzing the other scripts on which the script depends , And then go and look it up , Copy , Collect all the related scripts , Include Python Parser , Then put the files in a directory , Or package it in an executable file .

You can publish the output directly to an entire folder of files , Or the generated executable . You just have to tell the user , Your application App It's self-contained , No additional packages need to be installed , Or some version of it Python, You can just run it .

It should be noted that ,PyInstaller Packaged execution file , Only in the same environment as the packaging machine system . in other words , No portability , If you need to run on different systems , You have to package it for that platform .

Reference material

  1. Freezing Your Code
  2. PyInstaller official WIKI
  3. PyInstaller Source code

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