from :https://blog.csdn.net/fc34235/article/details/79584758

Reprinted from :http://diy.pconline.com.cn/750/7501340.html

Once upon a time , Let's talk about it TLC Color change ; Now ,TLC Attack and occupy SSD half . Yes , This world is so wonderful .

although TLC Already in the mainstream , But there are more rumors 、 More Baidu , Many consumers still have “ fear ” The attitude of , Let's learn more about TLC.

TLC What is it? ?

Solid state drives depend on NAND Flash Flash memory chips are used to store data , This is similar to our common U disc .NAND Flash According to the principle of storage, it can be divided into three kinds ,SLC、MLC、TLC.

SLC = Single-Level Cell, namely 1 bit per cell,1 A storage unit can store 1 bit The data of , There is only 0 and 1 Two charge values . And so on ,TLC = Triple-Level Cell, namely 3 bit per cell,1 A storage unit can store 3 bit The data of .

Unit capacity memory , Can store more data , therefore TLC The production cost per megabyte is the lowest .

TLC working principle :

Xiaobian tries to explain it in popular language . according to NAND The physical structure of ,NAND It stores data through insulation . When you write data , You need to apply a voltage and create an electric field , So electrons can go through the insulator and into the memory cell , At this point, the writing of data is completed . If you want to delete a storage unit ( data ), The voltage is applied again to let the electrons pass through the insulation , Thus leaving the storage unit .

therefore ,NAND The original data must be deleted before writing new data again .

because TLC Of 1 A storage unit can store 3 bit The data of , In order to distinguish between , Different voltages have to be used to achieve . In addition to being able to achieve and SLC Same 000(TLC)=0(SLC) and 111(TLC)=1(SLC) Outside 、 There are six other data formats that must be distinguished by different voltages , Let different numbers of electrons into the storage unit , Realize different data expression . such , To make TLC Realize the storage ratio of unit storage unit SLC、MLC The purpose of more data .

Why? TLC Of the three media ?

Because the data is written to TLC Eight different voltage states are required in the , And applying different voltage states 、 Especially the relatively high voltage , It will take longer to achieve ( The process of increasing voltage , It's not complete until the right voltage is found ).

therefore , stay TLC It takes longer to access data in , So the transmission speed is slower . Through the measured , Under the same technical conditions ,TLC Of SSD Performance is not up to MLC SSD Of .

Why did you TLC Unfashionable ?

Why there is no mechanical structure SSD It's still a matter of longevity ? Because according to how it works , Every time the flash memory cell writes or erases, the applied voltage will cause the physical loss of the silicon oxide insulator . This thing is just a little bit 10 Nanometer thickness , With each electron crossing, it gets thinner .

That's why , Silicon oxide is getting thinner and thinner , Electrons can be trapped in the silica insulation , The erasure time will also be prolonged , Because it's going to take a long time before the voltage is reached 、 Higher pressure . The main controller can't change the programming and erasing voltage . If the original designed voltage value is abnormal , The master will try different voltages , It naturally takes time , It also puts more pressure on the silicon oxide , Accelerated losses .

Last , Master control programming and erasing a TLC Flash memory cells are taking longer and longer , Finally, the performance is seriously affected 、 It's unacceptable , The flash block is dead .

meanwhile , Conventional 2D After the flash reaches a certain density, the amount of charge stored in each power supply will decrease , After the loss of TLC Insulating layer , Adjacent memory cells also produce charge interference , Develop to 20nm After the craft ,Cell The interference between cells is more serious , If the data is not refreshed for a long time, it will appear like Samsung before 840 Evo Reading old files like that will slow down .

therefore , Before the development of new technologies such as new master control , Manufacturers have been afraid to TLC SSD Launch the market , Reliability problems are inevitable , After all, data is more than everything .

Why do people worry about longevity ?

P/E Life comparison

because TLC Using different voltage states , Plus a lot of storage capacity , The number of times the insulating layer is broken down is also more than that of other dielectrics , This accelerates the loss process of the insulating layer . therefore ,TLC SSD It's longer than SLC、MLC It's much shorter .

before TLC Of P/E When life is low , There is a risk of scrap in a few years

In limine TLC Of P/E Life span is less than 1000 Time , But after the manufacturer improved the algorithm and optimized the master control , Upgrade to 1000 To 2000 Time . by comparison ,MLC Yes 3000 To 10000 Second erasure life . If the user's PC Only TLC SSD, So in the daily use environment , If one 120GB SSD Of P/E Life span is less than 1000 Time , And write it every day 60GB The data of , So less than five years ,SSD It will be scrapped . In the current era of excess performance , It's very scary , So people used to worry about TLC SSD The problem of the life span of .

lately TLC SSD why “ Perversely ” It's a blowout ?

samsung 850 EVO、 Toshiba corp. Q300、 Yingruida BX200…… We are familiar with SSD The manufacturers are 2015 It was launched on a large scale in TLC SSD, of great momentum . Since we said before TLC So many deficiencies , Why do manufacturers still promote it ? Don't you hit yourself in the foot with a stone ?

Toshiba corp. TC58NC1000GSB Master support Smart ECC、Smart Flush0 Technology .

In the past year ,SSD The biggest credit of manufacturers is to solve the problem TLC Of P/E Life problem , Give Way TLC SSD The life span of a computer goes up to the normal cycle we use . The quality of the main control algorithm will have a great impact on the performance and life , at present SSD The manufacturer has made great improvement in the main control technology , signal processing , The stronger ECC Algorithm 、 Expand the capacity of the reserve area, increase the reserved space and other technical applications , from TLC Of 500--1000 Time P/E Upgrade to current 1000 To 2000 Time , To a certain extent, it ensures the reliability and service life .

We know TLC Poor performance , Especially in writing performance ,SSD The manufacturer passes SLC Cache The use of , As long as a buffer with large capacity is created, users will not feel slow in writing , and SLC Cache Having a good time also has the effect of prolonging life span .

in addition ,SSD The manufacturer is interested in TLC SSD Our quality assurance is upgraded to MLC SSD Basically the same level , Such as samsung TLC SSD Our warranty is generally five years , Let consumers have a good rest in these five years . add TLC Natural price advantage , And the gold lettered signboard , It's really attractive . More and more manufacturers are involved in TLC SSD In the competition , Prices keep falling , Let a lot of right SSD If you are interested, try some , To encourage TLC SSD The growth of .

TLC The future of ?

TLC Our counter attack is the truth of developing strengths and avoiding weaknesses . There is a market , There will be progress , I believe the manufacturer will be right TLC Technology to do more research , Make sure it's good and cheap TLC Keep going .

3D NAND Flash comparison 2D Has a life advantage

Such as samsung 3D NAND Flash memory is TLC It's an important direction in the future .3D NAND It's not about shrinking Cell unit , But through 3D Stack technology encapsulates more Cell unit , So we don't have to pursue more advanced manufacturing processes , After all, the manufacturing process is about advanced , Life expectancy is getting worse . therefore , It can be produced using a relatively older process 3D NAND Flash memory , The advantage of using the old process is P/E The number of erasures has increased significantly , And the charge interference is greatly reduced by using the old process .

3D NAND Flash memory structure

In the future 3D NAND It could be made. It could be MLC And TLC Switching between working modes , Also is to use TLC Shielding half capacity 、 To act as MLC, That's all kinds of so-called 3bit MLC Technological innovation . Similarly , Toshiba Q300 and OCZ TRION 100 It's a long-lived and stable enterprise class eTLC Sound SLC、MLC、TLC It's no longer clear-cut .

How will it develop in the future ? We'll see !

face TLC, What should we do ?

According to industry news , Entry and mainstream are already TLC Of the world ,MLC Continue to play its role in the high-end field . Manufacturers are the drivers of products and technology , As consumers, we can only passively accept other people's rules of the game .

TLC SSD Trends can't stop

although TLC SSD I can't compare with MLC Of SSD, But it's worse than HDD It's much better . So we need to have this idea . second , stay TLC The next push ,240GB Of SSD It is no longer necessary 400 Yuan can start with , Very good value for money . All in all ,TLC No longer Wu xiaamung , So we don't have to worry about TLC All kinds of concerns about , Use it to your heart's content ! After all, the warranty is here .

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