1. About set

C++ STL The reason why it has been widely praised , It's also used by a lot of people , It's not just about offering things like vector, string, list And other convenient containers , what's more STL It encapsulates many complex data structure algorithms and a large number of common data structure operations .vector Package array ,list Encapsulates the linked list ,map and set Encapsulating binary trees and so on , When encapsulating these data structures ,STL According to the usage habits of programmers , Common operations provided as member functions , Such as : Insert 、 Sort 、 Delete 、 Search, etc. . Let users in STL In use , It's not strange .

About set, It must be noted that set Associative containers .set As a container, it is also a data type used to store the same data type , And it can extract data from a data set , stay set The value of each element in is unique , And the system can sort elements automatically according to their values . It should be noted that set The value of the median element cannot be changed directly .C++ STL Standard Association container in set, multiset, map, multimap The internal use is a very efficient balanced search binary tree : Red and black trees , Has become a RB Trees (Red-Black Tree).RB The statistical performance of the tree is better than that of the general balanced binary tree , So be STL Selected as the internal structure of the associated container .

About set There are several questions :

(1) why map and set The efficiency of insertion and deletion is higher than that of other sequence containers ?

Most people say , It's simple , Because for associated containers , There is no need for memory copy and memory movement . That's right , Such is the case .set All elements in the container are stored as nodes , Its node structure is similar to the linked list , Point to the parent and child nodes . The structure diagram may be as follows :

  / \
/ \ / \
  D E F G

So when you insert it, you just need to do a little transformation , Just point the pointer to the new node . When you delete it, it's like , After a little transformation, point the pointer to the deleted node to other nodes OK 了 . All the operation here is to switch the pointer back and forth , It has nothing to do with memory movement .

(2) Why every time insert after , Previously saved iterator It won't fail ?

iterator This is equivalent to a pointer to a node , Memory doesn't change , How can a pointer to memory fail ( Of course, the deleted element itself is invalid ). be relative to vector Come on , Every time you delete and insert , The pointer may fail , call push_back It's the same with tail insertion . Because in order to ensure the continuous storage of internal data ,iterator The block pointed to may have been covered by other memory or the memory has been released during deletion and insertion . Even when push_back When , There may not be enough space inside the container , Need a new, bigger memory , Only release the previous memory , Apply for new and larger memory , Copy existing data elements to new memory , Finally, put the elements that need to be inserted at the end , So the previous memory pointer is not available . Especially with find When algorithms are used together , Keep this principle in mind : Don't use expired iterator.

(3) As the number of data elements increases ,set How does the insertion and search speed change ?

If you know log2 You should have a thorough understanding of the answer . stay set Search in is to use binary search , in other words , If there is 16 Elements , At best, you need to compare 4 You can find the result in one time , Yes 32 Elements , Compare at most 5 Time . So there are 10000 A? ? The maximum number of comparisons is log10000, At most 14 Time , If it is 20000 An element ? At most 15 Time . See , When the amount of data doubles , It's just a lot of searches 1 Time , More 1/14 It's just a long search time . When you understand that , You can put elements into it .

2.set The method commonly used in

begin()     , return set The first element of the container

end() , return set The last element of the container

clear()        , Delete set All the elements in the container

empty() , Judge set Whether the container is empty

max_size() , return set The maximum number of elements a container can contain

size() , Returns the current set The number of elements in the container

rbegin , The return value and end() identical

rend() , The return value and rbegin() identical

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