Write From Yangwj
Sunday, March 9, 2014
One 、 Vlan The identification of
1. The switch port is the access port , It belongs to one of them Vlan; If it's a relay port , It can belong to all Vlan.
2. Different types of links in interactive networks
a) Access port ： It can only belong to one Vlan, It can only carry one Vlan Of traffic .
b) Relay port ： You can make a single port carry multiple Vlan Of traffic .
3. Access port traffic ： Traffic is only accepted and sent in native format , No Vlan The tag . If an access port receives a marked packet , That will be discarded . If an unmarked packet is received , So what's on this port Vlan Mark . reason ： The access port does not look at the source mac Address , All marked traffic can only be forwarded and accepted by the relay port .
4. Relay port traffic ： Received a message , To determine if there is VLAN Information ： If not, port it PVID, And exchange and forward , If there's a judgment to make trunk Whether the port allows the VLAN Data access to ： Forward if possible , Or throw it away . Compare port PVID And the VLAN Information , If the two are equal, strip VLAN Information , Send again , If it's not equal, send it directly
Two 、 Frame marker
working principle ： First, the switch that receives the frame needs to identify the Vlan ID, Then look at the information in the filter table , You know how to process frames ; If the interactive machine has another relay link , Frames are always forwarded here . Once the frame arrives by forwarding / The filter table determines 、 With the frame of Vlan The exit of the matching access link , The switch will be deleted Vlan identification . such , The destination device can receive the frame , There's no need to understand their Vlan identification .
This machine （Native）Vlan： For all unmarked traffic going through Vlan, The relay port will be assigned a default port Vlan ID（PVID）, The default is Vlan 1 , But it can be changed to any Vlan Number .
3、 ... and 、 Vlan The recognition method of the image quality
principle ： First specify that you are going to use 802.1Q Encapsulation to implement each port of the relay , The port must be assigned a specific Vlan ID, Make them local Vlan, So that they can communicate .
2. Inter switch links （inter-Switch Link,LSL）
First, it's a way of explicitly marking on Ethernet frames VLAN Method of information , Through an external packaging method , This tagging information allows VLAN Multiplexing on the relay link , This allows the switch to identify the frame on the relay link VLAN member relationship .
Four 、 VLAN Relay protocol （VTP）
Basic goal ： Cross switched Internet management all configured VLAN, also 、 Maintaining consistency on that network .VTP Allow administrators to VLAN Add 、 Delete and rename , And spread that information to VTP On all other switches in the domain .
VTP The benefits of ：
ü On all switches in the network ＶＬＡＮ Consistency of configuration
ü allow ＶＬＡＮ Implementing relay links in hybrid networks , Such as Ethernet to ＡＴＭ ＬＡＮＥ or ＦＤＤＩ
ü ＶＬＡＮ Accurate tracking and monitoring of
ü Add the ＶＬＡＮ Dynamic report to ＶＴＰ All switches in the domain
ü add to ＶＬＡＮ Plug and play when using
( One ) ＶＴＰ Operation mode of
The server ： This is the default mode ,ＶＬＡＮ The configuration is saved in ＮＶＲＡＭ in .
The client ： Receiving information from the server , It sends and receives updates , But no change .
transparent ： The switch is not involved in VTP Domain work , It is not shared with other switches ＶＬＡＮ database , But they will still be forwarded over any configured relay link ＶＴＰ notice .
( Two ) ＶＴＰ trim
principle ：ＶＴP Provides a way to save bandwidth , It's by configuring it to reduce the broadcast 、 The number of multicast and unicast packets . Can be pruned effectively VLAN yes 2——1001, And the ones that can't be pruned VLAN Will receive a lot of traffic .
Enable pruning ：
ü Enter global configuration mode ：config t
ü Enter interface configuration mode ：inter f0/1
ü Configure pruning ：switchport trunk pruning vlan 3-4
5、 ... and 、 Basic experiments
VLAN Basic configuration
ü All of the PC According to the above planning address configuration
ü It's divided into three VLAN, They correspond to the PC
ü Ignore the router for now , They are for the following VLAN It's prepared for routing
a) To configure VLAN
1. All before configuration PC Belong to a VLAN in , That is, in the same broadcast domain , So you can communicate at will
2. To configure S3（VLAN Divide ）
3. Assign the corresponding port to VLAN in
4. see S3 VLAN Information
5. To configure S2 And S3、S2 And S4、S4 And S5 The link between them is in relay mode
S3 Configuration on
S2 Configuration on
S4 Configuration on
S5 Configuration on
6. To configure S5（ Configuration is the same as S3）
7. View separately S3 and S5 Of VLAN Whether the information is configured correctly
8. Now let's PC2 And PC5 signal communication
9. PC2 And PC3 and PC6 signal communication
PC2 And PC3
PC2 And PC6 signal communication
10. PC3 And PC6 Can communicate normally
11. take PC3 Of ip Change it to 192.168.1.4, And try and PC4 signal communication
Why can we communicate like this ？（ Look at the exploration experiment ）
b) VLAN Routing between
1) Single arm routing
The topology is as follows
Small instructions ： Use here R1 Do one arm routing configuration experiment , Borrow the above configuration VLAN, Complete this experiment . In the above experiments PC No gateway is specified , So here you need to add , And this address is encapsulated in the sub interface of the router 802.1Q Of .
1. To configure S2 The port connecting the router is in relay mode
2. Configure router sub interface and IP Data such as , also no shutdown
3. Give Way PC Communicate with each other
PC1 and PC0
PC0 and PC2 signal communication
PC1 and PC2 signal communication
The same goes for the rest , All of them can communicate with each other , This is one arm routing . The advantage is that you can save ports , The disadvantage is that a broken line will lead to multiple VLAN Communication between .
2) Multi arm routing
Small instructions ： This experiment does multi arm routing , So it will R1 Remove or close the interface , Avoid affecting the experiment . among R2 Three lines are connected , Connect to S2 perhaps S4 It's the same effect , But it is generally recommended to connect to the same switch .
1. To configure R2 Of F0/1 Interface
2. To configure R2 Of F0/0 Interface
3. To configure R2 Of E1/0 Interface
4. View configuration information
5. The router is connected to the line corresponding to the VLAN in
Actually S4 You don't have to configure it , Because the default belongs to VLAN1
6. Give Way ＰＣ Communicate with each other
ＰＣ１ and ＰＣ２
ＰＣ２ and ＰＣ３
PC3 and PC0
PC2 and PC0
7. Each switch vlan The information is as follows
8. R2 Information about
Finally, I hope you can use the simulation mode in the experiment PDU, This will help you better understand the encapsulation and de encapsulation process of network packets , Secondly, it can make you deeply understand VLAN perhaps STP And so on . It's not a bad thing to have problems , Escape is a bad thing .
6、 ... and 、 Exploration experiment
A. Exercise one
Cerebellar activity period ： According to the picture , We can skillfully configure its network , But that's the premise, not the point . Before you configure the network structure in the topology , Can you get such a clear result ：PC A、PC B、PC C、PC D Is there anything you can communicate with each other ？
1. Check out the configured Switch0 Of VLAN Information
2. The same goes for Switch1
3. Give Way PC A And PC D signal communication
B. Exercise 2
Cerebellar action time ： The configuration is simple , So see the picture above , What do you think of ？ adopt VLAN Learning from , We can definitely know ,A and C It's communicable .
1. see S1
2. see S2
3. Give Way A And C signal communication
C. Practice three
The cerebellum is very special ： Topology is conceived , Command configuration is simple , What do you think of in the picture above ？ You'd better think for yourself here , The answer remains in the later implementation .
1. see S1
2. see S2
3. Give Way B and C signal communication
D. Exercise four
Leisure time ： I believe that by the end of exercise four, you will have mastered VLAN Related knowledge , The focus of this four experiments is to enable you to have a deeper understanding of the impact of relay port and access port on whether there is a label VLAN The acceptance of information / Forward or discard . Understand the process , In order to make better use of VLAN; Maybe a little careful people will find such a problem ： Different VLAN They can communicate with each other without using the third layer devices , Isn't it a little incredible ？ At least I don't think so , Every technology can actually create a lot of miraculous effects , As long as you're willing to go deep into it , Study carefully , Keep thinking about , A small point will play out the maximum efficiency . You can't study too hard , I can't live too much , It's about persistence .
The above is just a simple exercise , I hope you can use it in a large network . You can also use VLAN Principle , Think of more similar exercises .
In this exercise A You can talk to D signal communication
Learning technology can't be too boring , Technology can't be too boring .
Learning is deep but living , Knowledge is rich, but it must be refined .
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